The Khul’ Divorce in Egypt

Under the rules of divorce in Islamic sharia, a husband has the prerogative right to divorce his wife any time, any place, with or without any reason. Under certain conditions, the wife may request from the religious judge a judicial divorce in case of harm or maltreatment (darar), as stated by the Maliki School of jurisprudence.

Based on the wide interpretation of the Maliki School, the wife may seek divorce if she can convince the judge that she is suffering a harm from her husband, a provision that is not allowed by the Islamic Hanafi School of law.

In general terms, Islamic sharia allows the wife to seek divorce under the following conditions: (1) impotency; if the husband is unable to consummate the marriage; (2) his apostasy from Islam; (3) his imprisonment for a long period of time; and (4) if he contracts an incurable skin disease.

The additional harm as a cause for divorce in Maliki interpretation of sharia, allows the wife to bring evidence to the judge showing that the husband used systematic maltreatment, and is unable to provide maintenance to her.

Such provisions in Islamic sharia created hardship for thousands of women who were seeking divorce, but unable to prove the harm factor to the satisfaction of the judge. Women were unable to get out of their un-happy marriages because their husbands refused to consent to the divorce, and the judges were not persuaded with the evidence presented by the women. To remedy this situation, the Egyptian government enacted a law allowing judges to approve the divorce through a process known as Khul, or repudiation, without the consent of the husband.

Khul was practiced in early Islamic period; it allows the wife to obtain a final divorce by means of a financial settlement paid by her to the husband in compensation, without having to prove of harm or maltreatment. Frequently, under the terms of Khul, the wife is required to pay back all or part of the “mahr”, which is the amount of money or objects of value that the husband gave his wife when the marriage contract was signed. Also, she has to relinquish her right to the amount of “mahr” he promised to give her in the future. In addition, the husband must agree to the Khul. In other words, should the husband refuse to consent to the Khul, the wife will be unable to get divorce. Faced with that difficulty, the legislators in Egypt enacted a law in which the judge was given authority to separate the married couple based on Khul without the approval of the husband and without having to prove maltreatment.

On January 2000, former President, Hosni Mubarak of Egypt, issued in the Official Gazette [al-Jaridah al-Rassmiyyah] Law No.1, of 2000, granting women the right to file for a “no-fault” divorce (Khul) on the basis of “incompatibility,” without having to provide evidence of harm. Under the provisions of the new law, the wife may obtain a definitive judicial separation from her husband if she desires so; the only condition she has to satisfy is to forfeit her rights to alimony and her deferred “mahr” (muakhar) as well as repay her advanced “mahr” (muqaddam).

First section of Article 20 of the new law provides the following: “A married couple may mutually agree to separation (al-Khul); however, if they do not agree and the wife sues demanding it [i.e., the separation], and separates herself from her husband (khalaat zawjaha) by forfeiting all her financial legal rights, and restores to him the “mahr he gave to her, then the court is to divorce her from him (tatliqiha alayhi).”

Before the judge rules on Khul, he has to order the couple to undergo a process of reconciliation, and after asking two mediators [hukkam] to pursue conciliation efforts between them for a period that may not exceed three months; and after the wife decides explicitly [tuqarrir sarahatan] that she abhors living with her husband and there is no way to continue married life between them, and that she is afraid to transgress Gods limits of this abhorrence.

It is important to note here that while a woman is required to submit to burdensome and time-consuming court-ordered conciliation, men seeking divorce, on the other hand, are never required to make any efforts at reconciliation. The reconciliation process is rooted in the biased notion that women are not capable of making rational decisions on issues related to divorce. According to one prosecutor in Cairo, mediation was necessary because “a woman may be hasty in filing for a divorce and may not have a strong keenness in keeping the family together. The court has to play this role and intervene. Men are more wise and rationale than women. A womans emotions can overcome her rationality”. (See Divorced from Justice: womans unequal access to divorce in Egypt, Google eBook, p.28).

Section 3 of Article 20 states that the separation order of the judge is “an irrevocable divorce [talaq bain]”; and the courts decision is not subject to any form of appeal. Article 20 of the Egyptian law of 2000 does not accord legal weight to the husbands consent to the terms of Khul divorce. This is based on the Sunnah literature, embodied in the Islamic canonical collections of the sayings and deeds of the Prophet of Islam, and especially the collection of Sahih al-Bukhari, which contain an authenticated version of Muhammads handling of the Habiba separation case in which he ruled to separate her from her husband without asking the husbands permission.

Although Article 20 of the Egyptian Personal Status Law, which grants women the right of Khul is considered a significant accomplishment by womens rights activists, it is harmful to womens financial rights because the wife is forced to give up her mahr, alimony and other gifts provided by the husband during their marriage. Poor women, particularly in rural areas, suffer most of this financial loss.

DISCLAIMER: While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this publication, it is not intended to provide legal advice as individual situations will differ and should be discussed with an expert and/or lawyer. For specific technical or legal advice on the information provided and related topics, please contact the author.

An authorization to republish this article is hereby granted by the author provided that authors name is attached to the article.

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Considerations before Hiring Amarillo Medical Malpractice Attorney

Is it always necessary to hire an attorney to handle your medical malpractice case? Even though many people will argue that it’s necessary, the truth is that you should never be on the rush to get an Amarillo medical malpractice attorney. You might come to realize later that the case you are pursuing does not warrant a lawsuit. Therefore, it is significant you make some important and serious considerations well in advance to avert such a scenario from befalling you. Beware that you must be in a position of proving beyond reasonable doubt that the doctor you are accusing committed the mistake and the mistake caused harm to you. If you can substantiate on that, be confident that seeking an attorney will be the best thing.

It is always a very difficult thing determining what medical malpractice comprises which is actually a major challenge to those seeking justice. Basically, it happens when a professional in the medical world commits an irregularity that inflicts harm to a patient. This can be through commission or omission which amounts to medical negligence. This is all that an attorney will be struggling to prove once you have hired one. Some of these things are very complex to a layman so be keen on getting a qualified and experienced attorney to handle your case. That has to be yet another vital consideration you make in selecting an Amarillo medical malpractice attorney. Don’t choose an attorney because they are many in the market but pick one who will drive your case to success.

The real damage or injury that happens to you will be the main focus of legal proceedings so never engage a lawyer without enough evidence for that. You might have a weak case but the lawyer will not inform you since he or she will be out to make money. Furthermore, the injury caused has to be well connected with negligence for you to win the case. This is a whole complex issue and seeking advice from other medical experts and close friends must be duly considered.

Enlist their help which will be critical in helping you understand the whole aspect of medical malpractice and how to go about it. A medical expert who is neutral in thinking will be able to advise you on whether the doctor is on the wrong or not and if you can pursue a legal case. Talking to friends who have had to go the same route will give you the side of their story from personal experience and making an informed decision will the best thing to get out of it. Do not die alone with your case but seek external help from people you trust.

Generally, you must be completely sure that engaging an Amarillo medical malpractice attorney will be of value and no frustrations. You might end up making the wrong choices and regret forever which you must remain cautious against during your selection. These are some of the things majorly ignored but you should not.

Resource Box Make due considerations prior to choosing an Amarillo medical malpractice attorney . Some hurried decisions always end up in frustrations but not with your selection of an attorney to handle a medical malpractice case. The Amarillo personal injury attorney http://quackenbushlawfirm.com/ you engage must do the right job and not just standing in court to fleece you money.

How to start a publishing business in Singapore

Singapore can boast of highly literacy population and as we all know, people gain knowledge from books, newspapers, magazines, periodicals, etc. If we add to this strong regime of intellectual property protection, ease of starting a business and the availability of competent employee, Singapore becomes an ideal center for the publishing industry.

Licenses for print publication in Singapore

Permission to publish newspapers should be obtained from the Media Development Authority of Singapore (MDA) for:
1. Printing of newspapers in Singapore. By the newspaper is meant any publication that contains news, reports and any observations or comments on the news, messages, or include any other issues with regards to public interest, that is published for the sale and distribution free of charge on a regular basis, but do not include a publication for government.
2. Offshore newspapers in Singapore. These newspapers write about current state of affairs outside the Lion City and are published outside the territory of the country with a circulation of 300 copies or more in Singapore.
3. Malaysian newspaper in Singapore.

The procedure for applying for permission to print newspapers in Singapore include:
1. The owner or the chief editor should apply together with the following supporting documents to Registrar of Newspapers in Singapore:
2. You can get a Newspaper Permit without paying any fees what pleases but for an offshore newspaper a bank guarantee is S $ 200,000.
3. Processing the application usually takes 15 working days and received permit will be valid for one year.
4. During your business anything can happen and due to this you may need to change the name of the newspaper, the nature of the content, language and frequency of publication, etc. In this case it will be required to get new permission.
5. Remember that after obtaining the permission you have 3 months to publish the first issue of the publication. In other case authorities will be interested in your purpose of your Singapore business and obtaining the permission.

Printing Press License in Singapore
If you intend to run the press to print any publications such as newspapers and magazines in Singapore, you will need to obtain a license from the registrar to print newspapers.
1. Before applying for your license to print you must perform the following pre-conditions:
– Workrooms for printing operation must be approved by the URA;
– The business must be registered with the Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority ACRA.
2. To complete the procedure and obtain required license you have to submit an application with the following documents to the Registrar of Newspapers in Singapore and:
– If the applicant is a third party, he must submit a Letter of Authorization;
– If you are going to make business not by registered with ACRA address. you will have to contact the Chief Inspector of Factories to approve premises for the purpose of printing.
3. It usually takes three working days to process the successful applications, according to which the license is issued for a period of one year.
4. No license fees.
5. The license is not transferable. If there are any changes to the license holder or a change of the location of the printing you must get a new license.

How to Get Immigration Forms

The starting stage of any application to the USCIS entails that you fill a form and send it back to them in some regard. Now, these forms are available at a variety of places. This article tells you the possible avenues where you can get hold of such a form and the pros and cons of each.

USCIS website: The first and most obvious source where you can get these forms is the USCIS website. The forms are easily available if you go to the get me started tool. There will be a whole list of forms and you may have to find out the relevant form. This is very important if you do not wish to end up filing the wrong form. Once the relevant form has been located it must be downloaded on your computer and a print out must be taken.en.

Via mail: The other way you can get the form directly from the USCIS if you are not computer savvy is to call their helpline and ask for a form to be posted to you in the mail. This may take a few days and may be a more expensive way of getting hold of the form.

From websites that sell resources: There are a wide variety of websites that sell resources. Basically all USCIS documents contain a large amount of legal jargon and therefore there are resources which act as a guide for you to complete the formalities. There are books, videos and articles available which help you to clear the immigration test and even the immigration interview. These websites generally have the form as they try to make it a one shop stop for their shoppers. It is advisable to learn more and more about the procedures involved to make sure that the application is up to date according to the latest rules and regulations.

From an US immigration attorney’s office: An immigration attorney’s office generally has a specialized staff for filing these documents. They may charge a minor fee but at the same time you can be rest assured that your documents are filed by experts who are specialized in this regard.

To sum it up, filing an immigration form may sound easy but it isn’t very easy especially when it is in the context of an immigration form. This is because there are simply too many forms and there is also simply too much jargon being thrown around for an average person to understand. Hence it may be said that

Just after graduation from secondary school, I put in 6 yrs in Princeton gaining my Master of business administration. Following, I’ve moved to Beautiful hawaii to accomplish my best at kicking back while raising a home in this Ocean heaven.

Considering Ovation Law For Credit Repair Read This First.

Are you willing to trust Ovation Law with your credit score? Would you answer the same if you knew they lie to you to get your business?

Ovation Law is one of the leading credit report repair law firms in the industry. As a credit repair law firm, they act on behalf of their clients by working directly with the credit bureaus to dispute negative items on the clients credit reports. They send dispute letters to the credit bureaus signed using the clients name and manage the responses provided by the bureaus.

The Claims of Ovation Law

On their site, www.ovationlaw.com, Ovation provides a Compare Us page that includes a matrix comparing their services versus the services of their competitors. This is where you begin to wonder about their integrity as a service company, not to mention their integrity as a law firm.

The matrix includes a comparison to DSI Solutions, Legacy Legal, eCredit Group and naturally Lexington Law, the industry leader in credit report repair. For someone looking through the matrix, Ovation Law appears to be the obvious choice. They have the lowest price and claim 12 service features, 9 more than they show for any of the competitors.

Exposing the Truth Behind Ovation Laws Claims

Since it is a marketing page, you would expect Ovation Law to paint themselves in the best light. As a law firm, however, youd expect them to at least get their facts right. But either through poor content management or even less admirable reasons, Ovations site has glaring inaccuracies that work in their favor. A few examples of features that Ovation claims to offer are listed below. Also provided is documentation showing how each claim does not accurately portray the other credit repair companies on the page.

Same Day Service – Ovation Laws matrix claims that none of the competitors on the list offer this feature.
– Lexington Law (http://www.lexingtonlaw.com/OurServices.php? c=OurService)
The dispute process begins the same day you identify questionable negative items on your credit reports using Dispute Valet, our exclusive dispute management system. Copies of your credit reports are required.

Unlimited Personalized Disputes – Ovation Laws matrix claims that none of the competitors on the list offer this feature.
– Lexington Law (http://www.lexingtonlaw.com/OurServices.php? c=OurService)
Some companies charge per dispute per bureau, which means you get charged three times for each and every dispute. We think that’s pure nonsense. With Lexington you get unlimited disputes at no additional charge.
– eCreditGroup (http://www.ecreditgroup.com/pricing/comparison.asp)
Pricing policy of $550 membership fee and $0 for unlimited disputes
– Legacy Legal Services (http://www.legacylegalservices.com/cost_retaining.asp)
Service includes Unlimited Dispute Letters to All Three Credit Bureaus

Real Customer Service – Ovation Law claims that they are the only credit repair provider of the five to offer this feature.
– Ovation Law describes the feature by stating:
As a client of Ovation Law, be assured that our legal experts are working ’round-the-clock’ to meet your needs and are accessible to you at your convenience. Your paralegal works closely with our attorneys and can answer any questions you may have about your case. You can expect prompt, reliable and courteous customer service with Ovation Law.
On their site, Lexington Law advertises Free 24/7 support and that they offer toll-free phone support as well as free email support at no cost to you. It’s our way of ensuring top-notch customer service.

Multilingual Service & Support – Ovation Law does not list Lexington Law as providing this feature
– Lexington Law (http://www.lexingtonlaw.com/spanish.php)

Think Twice Before Using Ovation Law for Credit Repair

As the creators of the credit repair comparison chart, you would expect that Ovation Law would provide information that best serves their purpose. With a little bit of effort, every credit repair company included in the matrix could create a new comparison chart showing features that would do the same thing. For example DSI Solutions could create a chart showing that they will waive the setup fee and Legacy Legal could show that they offer a 25% discount on a couples retainer fee.

With Ovation Law, however, they cross the line by grossly misrepresenting the competition. They do not give credit where credit is due and as a result make you wonder why they feel the need to do so. Anyone shopping for credit report repair should seriously consider the integrity of the company that will be acting in their name when trying to clean up their credit history and this sort of messaging by Ovation Law raises some serious questions.

Immigration to European Union

European Union is composed of 27 alienated countries, with 10 of its members having connected since the year 2004. In a year 2010 the population of European Union arrives at half a billion. It continued expansion has require not only an outline of universal rights and guidelines for Europe Union National thus, it increasingly clear immigration regulations as a whole. e.

The state of Europe focused in initial discussion on avoiding the consequences which led to World War II. Members address their concerns by managing their coal and steel industries in an ordinary fashion, so that they depend in manufacturing war materials and how materials against other countries.

Typically, in reaching their aims with these moves, the countries try to generate the cooperation and unite Europe both economically and socially with a creation of a common market in the year 1957.Until the year of 1992 the treaty of Maastricht has no legislation with regards to immigration.

Typically, in reaching their aims with these moves, the countries try to generate the cooperation and unite Europe both economically and socially with a creation of a common market in the year 1957.Until the year of 1992 the treaty of Maastricht has no legislation with regards to immigration.

However, universal laws and rights have been made just for an E.U citizen, residents of E.U countries in order not share collective security other E.U. countries so that, they will not held any blanket E.U standard for such residency and you may also set your own residency policies.

For an instance, an Ireland citizen may legally retire in any countries in E.U in accordance to the European Union’s legal values for all citizenship. An Ireland resident who does not possess European Union citizenship will not have essential similar rights. Thus, other country in Europe put time that most convenient to them with regards to the limits and criteria of work, their program in immigration so that they provide different chance in obtaining a citizenship.

Author Justin P. Dunphy is fund to writes about Offshore Asset Protection. He likes to share his knowledge about creating a new identity in using a Immigration to Europe Union.

Seth Shumaker Attorney Received Various Honors in His Legal Career

Seth Shumaker, attorney provided excellent legal services and counseling in Kirksville area for more than 20 years. He specialized in areas of criminal law, personal injury, mass torts and class action. He utilized his experience and knowledge to help clients in getting the best solutions for their legal problems. In his successful legal career, he was awarded with various honors. He received Outstanding Young Man of America in 1986. He was also a part of National Dean’s List, 1986. Seth Shumaker Kirksville Missouri was Legislative Aide to Representative Estil Fretwell, Missouri General Assembly in 1986. In 1990, he was admitted to Missouri Bar and was also admitted to Wyoming Bar. From 2000-2006, he was among Board of Directors, LaPlata State Bank, LaPlata, Missouri.

Seth Shumaker attorney had served at various capacities in the legal field. He was a tutor at American Government Classes at Northeast Missouri State University for four years. From 1987-1990, he worked as clerk at Gary Spaeth, Attorney at Law, Red Lodge, Montana. After that, he was clerk with Powell, Seitz, and Francke, Columbia, Missouri. He worked with Carrie Francke in updating Missouri Law Enforcement Handbook. In 2000, he was special prosecuting attorney with Adair County, Missouri. He had practiced law for more than two decades.

Seth Shumaker Kirksville Missouri graduated from Kirksville Senior High School, Kirksville, Missouri at 3rd position out of 182. In 1986, he graduated with a Bachelor of Science Degree in Public Administration from Northeast Missouri State University (now Truman State University), Kirksville, Missouri. He then went to University of Missouri-Columbia of Law to earn Juris Doctor in the year 1989.

A family man, Seth Shumaker attorney lives with wife, Barbara and son Reagan in Missouri. His wife, Barbara is a registered nurse at Northeast Regional Medical Center’s Heart Clinic. Whenever he finds time, he likes to play golf, collect cigars, read good books and travel.

About The Author:

Sanford Maris is a technical writer, researcher who has a passion of writing and research. He mainly spends his time to informative websites like Wikipedia and Squidoo. Nowadays, He’s writing about finance articles which are his core interest.

Role of a Missouri Personal Injury Lawyer

Personal injury is of diverse types and caused by several reasons. Therefore, personal injury law is a vast and complicated concept that can only be understood by law degree holders. Different states in US have different sets of personal injury laws. So a Missouri personal injury lawyer must have erudition on the specific injury laws in force in Missouri. For the ordinary persons, it is of immense importance to be familiar with the functions of an injury lawyer.

Personal injuries are often inflicted on the innocent victims owing to negligence of the at-fault parties. Sometimes, the injured persons’ inadvertence also earn them minor to severe injuries. All the Missouri lawyers do not deal with personal injury cases. A Missouri personal injury lawyer is an erudite and experienced personality who handles only the injury related issues. The job of a Missouri personal injury lawyer is not only ensuring harsh punishment for the culprit but also securing the handsome package of compensation for the victim and his family.

The wrongdoer is taken to the police station and locked in the prison. If the case is of serious nature, the person is not released on bail. This individual also appoints a lawyer to defend his side of story. In such a situation, help of a Missouri personal injury lawyer comes in handy. An eminent and expert Missouri personal injury lawyer represents you in the court and tries utmost to make the juries’ decision tilt in your favor. Once the case is settled in your favor, the at-fault individual is obligated to pay you a hefty amount as determined by the court. The injury cases often involve a crucial role of the insurance companies. The insurance adjusters try their best to minimize the amount of claim and maximize the profit of their companies. It is this critical situation when the role of a Missouri personal injury lawyer emerges as the most pivotal one. Without an attorney by the side, the victim or his family may be cajoled into signing a claim deal that offers a paltry amount of compensation.

A Missouri personal injury lawyer covers a wide breadth of area including physical injury, mental trauma, death, diseases, encroachment on personal rights etcetera. Though accident cases constitute a major part of the workloads of many a Missouri personal injury lawyer, but the attorneys also handle the cases of sexual harassment and sexual abuses. Even the injuries , caused by dog bite are also represented by the Missouri injury lawyers. If you are residing in St. Louis, then you should consult with a St. Louis lawyer who possesses profound knowledge about the local state-specific laws.

Filing an injury lawsuit is tricky and time-consuming. So a layman needs some legal help from a Missouri personal injury lawyer. As they are expert at handling such cases, they can efficiently change the fate of almost a lost-case in favor of the victim with help of even a minor clue. If a person is hospitalized due to grave injury, then he has to spend a goodly sum for his treatment. Physical suffering will not evaporate but mental worries can be reduced substantially when the just amount of compensation will be handed over to the injured.

Hire a Lawyer for Any Legal Matters You Need to Be Resolved

Even if you are the nicest and most agreeable person on Earth, there will be times in your life where you may need to hire a lawyer. There are many reasons why you may need to hire professional legal counsel. If you are getting a divorce, going through family disputes, custody battle, estate matters or something else where you need to go in a mediation or court to get it resolved, you need to make sure that you aren’t on your own. There are many laws and many of them are changing on a constant basis. You don’t want to take the chance of losing a legal fight because you aren’t knowledgeable enough on the legal matter at hand.

Hiring a lawyer can be a great way to keep an unexpected and unwanted burden off of your shoulders. If you aren’t a legally savvy person then chances are you can’t maneuver your way through the legal system without running into any hiccups along the way. If you have never been to court before, you don’t know all of the ways you could end up losing your case and ending up with things not working out in your favor.

When you hire a lawyer for your legal situations, you are giving yourself a competitive edge. Many times when you are opposing another party, they are planning their case on the assumption that they will be just dealing with you. Why should you lose precious sleep over what is going on? Why should you stress and worry about how things are going to turn out? Why should you hand the other side the victory instead of putting up a fight for something you feel isn’t right or fair? Don’t let anyone take advantage of you. Even if you aren’t knowledgeable about your situation or your rights, your legal defense can represent you and protect your rights. They can prevent your being taken advantage of and help to make sure that your side is represented and heard fairly.

A lawyer that specializes in the kind of situation you are in is the best professional to help you accomplish the outcome you want. Screen your defender carefully and let them show you how to properly handle your situation. They can provide with the best advice and guidance to improve your chances for a successful case. They can keep you from getting bamboozled by the opposing side’s attorneys. Let your counsel show you why they are considered the best at what they do. Let them handle all of your legal issues, while you focus on other things that are equally just as important. Don’t let your legal issues take over your life. Hire the best legal professional for all of your litigations and disputes.

A lawyer Covington, LA residents know like Conroy Law Firm, PLC can help if you are in need of proper representation. Take a look here: .