It is simple to obtain an LEI (Legal Entity Identifier). From the list of LEI issuing organizations in the article below, contact your desired business partner. To know more about How to obtain an LEI click on the link.
The LEI issuing organization’s role
The LEI issuer, also known as the Numbering Authority (LOU), serves as a point of contact for legal organizations interested in obtaining an LEI by facilitating registration, renewal, and other services. LEIs can only be issued by entities that have been legally certified by the Global Legal Entity Identifier Foundation (GLEIF). GLEIF analyses the appropriateness of an organization wishing to function as an LEI issuer within the global LEI system through accreditation.
Being a GLEIF-certified member of the Global LEI System demonstrates our dedication to data quality and customer service around the world. GLEIF aims to improve the quality, reliability, and use of LEI data, allowing market participants to take advantage of the wealth of information available in the LEI population. The following data quality reports are published by GLEIF every month:
- Data Quality Reports for the Global LEI System: These reports indicate the current data quality attained by the Global LEI System.
- Data Quality Reports from LEI Publishers: These reports detail the level of data quality attained by individual LEI issuing organizations.
The Legal Entity’s Role Identifier requesting an LEI
Legal entities do not have to utilize their own LEI issuer; they can use any LOU registration service that permits them to register for LEI within their approved jurisdiction. By jurisdiction, the table below shows all GLEIF-certified LEI issuers who provide LEI services. LEI issuers who have completed the GLEIF certification program in the applicable jurisdiction are certified LEI issuers. Select the appropriate country to see which LEI issuers are servicing in your target country.
LEIs are linked to key references that can be used to clearly and uniquely identify legal organizations involved in financial transactions. Through the self-registration process, a legal entity desiring to receive an LEI must give its LEI issuer accurate reference data, that is, the legal entity’s public information that can be identified by the LEI.
- Information on the business card: The legal entity’s official name as well as its registered address This information is referred to as “level 1” data in the worldwide LEI system. This information answers the question of “who is who.”
- Information on the relationship: If appropriate, information that permits the direct and ultimate parent companies of the legal entity to be identified. This data is referred to as “level 2” data.
After the local registration authority (such as the national business register) confirms the reference data, the LEI issuing organization must issue an LEI that meets the LEI standards. The cost of establishing and maintaining the Legal Entity Identifier (LEI) is entirely up to the LEI issuing body. The purpose of the Global LEI System is to promote competition among LEI issuing organizations.
The global LEI index is where each legal entity identifier (LEI) is issued. It is the world’s only open, standardized, and high-quality legal entity reference data source available online. Stakeholders can use GLEIF’s web-based LEI search tool to access and search the whole LEI data pool.
Legal issues can get really nasty. Therefore, get your money’s worth by getting proper legal guidance from Family Law Attorneys Fort Worth to manage risks seamlessly and get services from out notable lawyers. It is always better to be safe than sorry, as a bad legal conflict can leave a mark in the affairs of your lifetime.
A Productive Attorney
Some most prominent and notable figures that contributed significantly to the justice system are always from notable institutions that teach the highest levels of moral code and ethics. The rigorous training makes an attorney insightful and a very powerful attorney.
Not only do they take on very high-profile cases that are comprised of death penalty cases and homicides, but some also chip into or are incentivized to take on pro bono cases of any social cause. This is to provide legal assistance to citizens at random who cannot afford an attorney so that they can also experience the quality of a high-profile attorney at no cost.
There are many people who are bound by very costly and sensitive cases. If not for the moral codes taught to the candidates of the justice system, things would be very difficult for citizens of low incomes.
Legal Process Outsourcing (LPO)
The legal system has its dynamics and offers incredible flexibility in the form of LPO. LPOs are becoming commonplace in the UK, and especially the United States where law firms are assisted by third-party candidates. This is becoming increasingly popular today as LPOs are known to be better equipped to handle legal issues and mitigate risks related to company data to mitigate risks.
In-house lawyers claim that LPOs are geared with advanced technical knowledge and risk analytics given the staggering increase of expenditure on LPO’s over the last five years by US and UK law firms.
Learn to Protect Yourself
It is in your best interest that you are represented by an expert attorney to make lawsuits less difficult e.g. a personal injury lawyer. Such lawyers may offer to take on various cases of client harm such as medical malpractice, accidents, or inflicted trauma.
However, it is a no brainer that you have to hire someone who is licensed to practice law in your state of residence and also check the areas of your attorney’s specialty and track records based on your case before you dive into an engagement.
Furthermore, when you look for a law firm to represent you, it is necessary to do a little background check on what the firm specializes in and if the company has strong grounds when it comes to high-quality legal services to clients.
This will legitimize the facts about a firm regarding the reputation it holds. It is in your best interest to look into the use of technological tools at law firms and if they have updated knowledge to protect you against litigation or worse yet, getting subpoenaed.
The legal system is an omnipresent set of rules and regulations that citizens are expected to abide by. It is an assertion of the rights of people that make up society. However, a few regulations can differ depending on geography, stated by the by-laws, but the legal system of all countries is restricted to moral judgments and ethical outcomes.
When it comes to getting any type of affordable legal services, you need to know that you’re getting the most for your dollar’s worth. While searching for New Jersey attorneys and any type of family law in New Jersey, it’s vital to to be sure that the firm of your choice is qualified and experienced in the field of your needs. It’s understood that you want someone who knows what they’re doing when representing you and the case you’re presenting. With this in mind, you should look only for firms of which you know will be able to assist you with the specifics of your case. The company that you decide on should also be able to provide their services at an affordable rate.
Help with family law in the New Jersey area
Finding Affordable Legal Services can be tough, but not impossible. New Jersey attorneys should be able to provide you with everything that’s needed when it comes to helping you with your case, whether it is family law or another case in New Jersey. Looking for the most reliable firm is something that most people will have to go through at some point in their life. The New Jersey attorney of your choice should be able to walk you through every process, so you don’t come across anything you didn’t plan ahead for. Dealing with a situation requiring family law services can be a tough process to go through. Thus, you want to ensure that you are prepared, knowing that you have affordable and reliable legal services to back you up.
With this in mind, you should be as open as possible, by telling your New Jersey Attorneys everything that can help them on the family law case of which they are acting on. This will allow you to feel more comfortable with hiring a firm that provides affordable legal services to represent you. With all of the New Jersey attorneys out there, you can find one that works well with your case and moreover, an attorney that you can trust. High-quality Family Law New Jersey are not something that come frequently, so ensure that the affordable legal services provided are something that you’ll want to stick with for some time.
Have you ever heard of Murphy’s Law? It is typically stated as: “Anything that can go wrong, will go wrong”. It sure sounds like a rather frightening law to accept. But instead of allowing it to make you cower in fear of anything and everything, you should look at it as a lesson, especially as it applies to your company and the business broadband you use to keep it functioning every day.
Murphy’s Law provides you with a cautionary tale. It offers the necessary incentive to safeguard ourselves from certain undeniable occurrences that are eventually bound to happen, however unlikely they may first seem. When applied to business internet, it is your responsibility as a business owner to identify and respect the notion that your current business high speed internet connection is not going to work as smoothly as it does every single day of every single year. After all, there is a reason that companies offer (at most) 99.99% guaranteed uptime. Sure, that is virtually a 100 percent guarantee, but it isn’t, and you should keep your business protected with Murphy’s Law in the back of your mind.
So what is the answer? Anything that can go wrong, will; so shouldn’t you just throw your hands up in the air and concede defeat? No way! In regards to business internet, you are going to be faced with some sort of connection interruption at some point, but that doesn’t mean you or your company should roll over and give up. The best defense against business internet related issues is being prepared for it. And the best way to be prepared for a business internet failure is by using a business broadband service that offer 24/7 technical support.
If you have business high speed internet providers who offer around the clock support for internet related issues, it is the next best thing to being able to prevent the issues from happening altogether. And since we have already discussed that internet related issues are unavoidable (and in most cases completely unpredictable), having a means to handle a situation after it presents itself will allow you and your company to experience their internet as they know it without having to first go through extended periods of downtime. New York business internet provider Natural Wireless is an example of a fiber internet provider that offers 24/7 technical support to their customers. They understand that crazy things can happen to even the most secure and reliable servers, which makes it even more important to be there for their customers in the rare event that something actually goes wrong.
If you need help with your business broadband, contact Natural Wireless as they offer very fast and easy with superior support. You can request a free estimate on their website.
Dreaming of working in one of the top countries of the world is a common phenomenon among people, especially from countries where opportunities of success and earning more are lesser comparatively do developed countries. Highly skilled professionals from various countries often take a flight to such countries. The United Kingdom or the UK is also one of most developed nations in world where people come from various parts of the world with a hope to earn more and make career in the right profession. National Government is also well aware of this (after getting thousands of visa application every month for work permit or UK work visa). And keeping the same in mind, immigration program was brought into effects in December 2001 for the duration of declaration of highly skilled Migrant Program.
Main object behind these policies was to draw the attention and persuading skilled professionals in the UK. Immigration department attract skilled people in the UK by offering immigration visa along with permission of Permanent Residency or Right of Abode in the UK. The amazing program truly brought a revolutionary change as more and more highly skilled professionals from various parts of the world flock to the UK with a hope of having Right of Abode along with better earning opportunity.
However, for residents of the European countries, visa is not mandatory. It is for those who are non-EU residents. If you are also one of them dreamt of working in the UK, you need work permit that is issued by the immigration department after getting some essential documents and following a certain criterion. Applying for the work permit is never so easy. For this having proper knowledge and understanding of European Immigration Law is also very important.
Experienced Immigration Lawyer in the UK – Find the Right Professionals at a Leading Firm
Today, there are a number of renowned and authorized immigration agencies in various cities and parts of the UK. You have to choose the right one and fill the query form according to your needs. These leading firms have OISC qualified advisers and experienced immigration lawyers/solicitors who help you at every step so that you can easily get the UK work permit.
These leading firms have carved a special niche as a famous and consistent immigration solicitor amongst migrants looking for the right legal assistance to live enduringly in the process of adobe in the UK. These reputed firms with the team of experienced immigration solicitors are the right places or immigration law practice firm, endowing with specialist advice on including, individual, business and human rights immigration. Whether you are private individuals, sole traders, multinational corporations, or citizen of Commonwealth Countries, you will get the right solutions and assistance from experienced immigration lawyer from an acclaimed firm. Understating European immigration laws in very important before applying for the work visa or any kind of other immigration solution. For this, finding experienced immigration lawyers is also a good decision.
We are Whyte, Just and Moore, a firm providing law services for those who are looking for the best services. Our highly regarded law practices have been honoured and appreciated by all of our clients as well as courts. We are a legally approved firm and well-known as WJM in the field of providing all kinds of legal helps and services to our respected clients and see to it that they never have to leave with disappointment under any circumstance. We make sure that at least from our side we do our best to give our clients what they pay us for. We have highly qualified lawyers and executives working for us and running the firm. Our lawyer dont work for us, they work with us. We maintain a friendly environment among the clients and lawyer so that the clients can tell of their problems without hesitation and difficulties and we can give them maximum help.
Our team of qualified lawyers are popular all over Geelong and they include carefully picked gems from the whole of Geelong. These lawyers are experienced in the field and working as lawyers since many years. They have the accurate idea about how to deal with every case that comes before them. Our team of lawyers are no lesser than any top lawyers of any city. The best of Geelong is with WJM and they are here to stay to serve their fellow citizens in their basic problems. We at WJM assure our clients that they will not return sad or disappoint under any condition. The following are the names of our honourable lawyers right now with us to help us improve our services: Deborah Anderson as the accredited specialist, Helen Buchan for business and property law and Kasey Warner for family law. All of them as senior lawyers. Sheree Molloy as a lawyer for family law and Aaron Jolly as a lawyer for business law, property law and criminal law.
We have Mr. Graeme Trethowan as a legal executive for property law and Debbie Lear also as a legal executive. Debbie sees the wills and estates law. We have Linda Wood and Melissa Purcell working as law clerks for property law and wills and estates law. We have Alison Mitchell as the cost consultant for our firm. Learn more about our lawyers here: whytejustmoore.com.au
We are professional and friendly family law Geelong. We also do property and other law works. We have very simple and clear objectives and they are: We tend to achieve best in our practice and providing legal services to our clients. We tend to deliver service and solutions to our clients as per their requirements.
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hours a day, 7 days a week, the law of attraction is working in your life. It doesnt even matter whether you are aware of it or not, or if you want it to or not it never stops. This is why it is so important to learn how to control your thoughts and feelings so you attract positive things into your life. The following law of attraction quotes from of attraction quotes and start applying them to your life, you will begin to experience magic in your life like you never imagined!
Law of Attraction Quotes 1: You become and attract what you think. Your thoughts are far more powerful than you may have ever realized. While this may seem to be a new concept, its been around for centuries. The Bible states something very similar, that you are what you think. Its the hit movie, The Secret, focus on your thoughts and feelings. If you study these law all about focus. If you focus on negative things, you will attract negative things into your life. If you focus on positive, happy things, the Universe will send happy things your way. You must choose your thoughts carefully. They will determine everything you attract into your life!
Law of Attraction Quotes 2: People think about what they don’t want and attract more of the same. If you habitually think about everything you want but dont have in your life, you will never attract the things you desire. Instead, you just attract more lack. For instance, if you are like many people who often think or say, I never seem to have enough money, you will keep attracting not enough money. If you dont want scarcity, then you must stop thinking about whats scarce in your life.
Law of Attraction Quotes 3: What you focus on with your thought and feeling is what you attract into your experience. The best way to begin attracting the things you really desire is to begin changing your thoughts and emotions to reflect those things. The tricky part here is to not think in terms of not having them (as discussed above), but to act and feel as if you had everything you desire right now. Thats how you begin attracting them. The next quote explain this a little more
Law of Attraction Quotes 4: The Law of Attraction is simply figuring out for yourself what will generate the positive feelings of having what you want now. What you feel most of the time plays a key role in what you attract. So, if happy, joyful, grateful emotions dominate your life, positive things will come your way. One of the best ways to create positive feelings is to imagine already living the life of your dreams. Really get into the feelings of having that lifethe more you feel those positive feelings now, the more quickly you will attract that life. To put it another way, you must believe it (and feel it) to see it!
Law of Attraction Quotes 5: Happy feelings will attract more happy circumstances. It is so very important that you find ways to shift your feelings so they are more positive. The more things you can feel joyful, happy, and grateful about, the more you will attract positive, wonderful things.
Law of Attraction Quotes 6: What we think about and THANK about is what we bring about. Gratitude is really important when it comes to making the law of attraction work in your life. No matter what is currently going on in your life today, there is always something for which you can be thankful. Once you start focusing on gratitude, you will be amazed how much you will find that you can thank about. Do this, and your life will change dramatically!
Hopefully you are beginning to see the wisdom and power in these famous law of attraction quotes. Write them down, memorize them, and review these law of attraction quotes several times a day. As you do this, begin shifting your thoughts and feelings to those which will allow you to attract the things you truly desire!
Our introduction to this topic will include the basics, which will be followed by a more in depth look at this topic.
THEFT AND NON-somber OFFENCES, legal AND general-LAW sign IN CRIMINAL LAW luggage
> Theft and allied Offences
Theft says s.1 Theft Act 1968 is the dishonest appropriation of another’s chattels with the purpose to deprive the other of it enduringly. The actus-reus of it is in s. 3 ‘appropriation’ (‘any assumption of an vendor’s right’) as can be varying cost-labels to pay minus: R -v- Morris 1983, or such ‘borrowing’ of a period-permit in a way as makes it of no or little regard: R -v- Lloyd 1985 (‘chattels’ being, s.4, all chattels counting money and equipment in action, but pure equipment as paper and not abstract equipment as data imitative from it: Oxford -v- Moss 1979, limitedly on brutish-emergent plants [numinous uprooted] and on plants-fruits-grass [numinous for auction]; ‘belonging to another’ is by another owned or in permitted possession or inspect of another, e.g. pleasing lacking payment from repairer: R -v- Turner 1971). The menstrual of it is ‘dishonestly’ in s. 2 (lucid in language of: s. 2(1)(a) numinous s/he believes it right in law to do so or s. 2(1)(b) that the vendor in the circumstances would consent if knew or s. 2(1)(c) that the vendor could not by reasonable steps be discovered), regarded as a two-perform trial of mundane orthodox of reasonable man and data of it: R -v- Feely 1968 & R -v- Gosh 198; also ‘purpose to enduringly deprive’ as in Lloyd.
Going through the final part of this article, we will see just how important the subject can be too many people.
The Theft Acts display also for other offences.
Obtaining chattels by fraud is in s. 15 of the ’68 Act, as theft but ‘by any fraud’ -by bogus lexis or tricky behavior: R -v- Bernard 1837 (pretending as concern inducing investment & give of cargo) R -v- Gomez 1993 (unentitledly in Salvation host attire collecting money).
Obtaining army by fraud is s. 1 of the ’78 Act -it is as for chattels in the prior Act.
Evasion liability in s. 2 of the ’78 Act is the offence of alike avoiding e.g. debts.
Making off lacking payment (bilking) is s. 3 of the ’78 Act ~e.g. restaurant -lacking paying.
Raid is s. 8 enabling theft by compel or such threats, at the time or before, as would put in fright another of there and then being subjected to it ~theft with assault or sequence -max.: life.
robbery in s. 9 is normally by infringe -by unauthorized door to or to any part of any structure (counting caravans & house-boats lived in), s. 9(1)(a) ‘intending to embezzle or inflict terrible forcibly destroy or raping any being inside it, or burden intermitted dent to it or something inside it as a infringer,’ s. 9(1)(b) or ahead door as infringer lacking such purpose burden or shooting so ~it is can be tried by Magistrates -by a Crown square if involves the purpose to rape or begin terrible forcibly destroy
winning a conveyance lacking consent is s. 12, pleasing, forceful or being in, any thing constructed for shipping people by land, water, or air (excluding pedal cycles) ~it is a abstract offence, routinely, with max. 6 month imprisonment -numinous aggravated by hazardous forceful, or dent to it, or accident causing injury or dent (in the Criminal spoil Act 1971 ‘reasonable prudent being trial’ applies).
> Non-fatal Offences Against the character
Non-fatal offences against the being are in part normal law offences, and in part by bill; and, in order of somberness, they are as follows:-
In Smith -v-Chief Superintendent of Working regulate class 1983 ingoing a plot at night, by looking through a bedroom chance terrifying a lady was an offence under s. 4 Vagrancy Act 1824 ~if intending to assault -lexis lonely are not routinely enough.
Assault is causing apprehension of regulate intermitted pure violence purpose ally or reckminusly -its exciting under s.39 Criminal honesty Act 1998. Threats not competent of being conceded out do not constitute it.
Array is the purposely or recombines subjecting of another to intermitted compel; and, as in the situation of drumming one wit a missile, it indigence not be coupled by assault. This also is in normal-law, exciting under s.39 of the Criminal honesty Act 1998.
In both of these offences the menstrual is purpose: R -v- Spratt 1990, or by subjective reckminusness: R -v- Savage 1991 was deliberate unreasonable jeopardy pleasing, and R-v- Parameter 1991: not if the jeopardy is evident but if nastiness was difficult. While both the actus-reus and the menstrual must exit at the same time, the menstrual can be twisted in the course of the actus-reus: Fagan -v- Metropolitan regulate Commission 1969 -having accidentally ambitious car on policeman’s bottom, refusing to move car when told had twisted it
Sati thingy sign of consent is a defense: R -v- Donovan 1934 (prostitute beaten by a spike for sexual gratification), if the offence is not a more somber one.
Assault Occasioning Actual corporal destroy is a s. 47 offence and it is when sequence, lonely or coupled with normal law assault, the legal ‘assault’ of the Act is so somber that it is prone to interfere with the victim’s shape and comfort -lacking acerbic the total skin, purely such as grazing and concussion: R -v- Roberts 1971, or: R -v- Chan & Folk 1994 as anxious shock in psychiatric language: R -v- Ireland & R -v- Barstow 1997 (a regulate pure tackle is not a entailment, also e.g. silent phone calls may constitute the offence of causing actual forcibly destroy. Its actus-reus is it identity as the consequence by the ‘but for’ trial, the objective trial; it entails this to be coupled with the menstrual in the form of purpose or subjective reckminusness: Roberts (where purpose ally or subjectively reckminusly there was intermitted compel, which objectively occasioned the forcibly destroy). In Donovan consent was not a defense is beginning actual forcibly destroy was beginning ~the character and the notch of the injury it identity being the resolute thing in whether normal assault was the offence difficult -to which only it is a defense, or actual forcibly destroy or superior…
Intermitted hurtful is a s. 20 offence, and it is by any means unpermittedly and maliciously acerbic or inflicting terrible forcibly destroys. In the actus-reus the ‘wound’ is other than a damaged collarbone: R -v- lumber 1830 or interior flow: JJC -v- Eisenhower 1983; it indigence not is somber. But ‘terrible forcibly destroy’ must be somber -though not necessarily enduring or life threatening, nor by a regulate tackle: R -v- Martin 1881. The menstrual of it is ‘maliciously’ (purpose or subjective reckminusness) which useful as transferred nastiness in future drumming in R -v- Latimer 1886; but in R -v- Parameter where ‘neither could have future nor realized injury’, and consent here too was no defense in R -v- tanned & Others 1993.
Hurtful with Intent is s. 18, the most somber of the Act’s offences. It is ‘unpermittedly and maliciously by any means whatsoever to wound or begin terrible forcibly destroy… with intent to do some terrible forcibly destroy… or to resist or stop the permitted apprehension or detaining… of any being’; its actus-reus is as for unpermitted acerbic, but its mens-rea is the purpose to commit the crime, and proof of that is vital, but it can be compact to and dealt with as ‘unpermitted acerbic’ based on subjective reckminusness: R -v- Constanza 1996 : it can be pestering and if silent phone calls begin mental anguish as in R -v- Gelder 1944.
Assault occasioning actual forcibly destroy and intermitted acerbic contain a greatest stretch of five being imprisonment, but acerbic with intent carries, as greatest, life imprisonment.
> The broad mains That Must be Proved before Establishing Criminal Liability
These have to be looked at first, in considering whether any offences may have been committed. Some of these are bill-based and some under normal-law, their development having been greatly unmoral by such pressures as lucrative, party, and following. Regularly reality is the skin of each crime, but there are some normal elements.
One is blameless awaiting ad numinous found in law not to be -excluding in precise-liability situations; this entails screening both that a guilty act was done, as well as that it was purpose ally done.
Actus-reus is the criminal act: e.g., s. 1 of the Theft Act 1968 ‘dishonest appropriation’; or the criminal omission: e.g., s. 6 boulevard passage Act 1988 ‘fails to display a specimen’; or a criminal a territory of contact or affair: e.g., in Wizard -v- Chief Constable of Kent 1983 the price of ‘found drunk in the highway’; or the criminal consequence: e.g., s. 47 Offences Against the character Act 1861 ‘occasioning actual forcibly destroy’-which is a ‘answer crime’ necessitating screening a casual associate in reality or in law.
Causation in reality is determined by the ‘but for trial’. In R -v- fair 1910 the mother’s murder having been from normal begins, poisoning her was not the begin, and it not murder.
Causation of law depends on the contribution of the intervening act. R -v- Roberts 1972 injury of jumping out the car was begin by sexual advances made to the lady in the car; in R -v- Pitts 1842 drowning was begin while escaping from an tackle; R -v- Lewis 1970 damaged leg answered from escaping threats and shot of violence; the reasonable act of the victim in seeking to breach being subjected to a crime was the associate. Contributory negligence of the victim in R -v- Holland 1841 (identity neglect) did not breach the associate, in R -v- Deer 1996 was still the significant hand in the murder -it was murder, a thyroid prepare anonymous to the accused at the time did not change the ‘egg-bomb skull declare’ and one took one’s victim as one found the victim -and R-v- Blue 1975 (refusal of blood-transfusion on pious proof) this applies also in regard to the spiritual prepare of the victim. The sole begin of murder indigence not be the act or the omission and in R -v- Padgett 1983 the ‘instinctive’ fatal shooting by a policeman of a soul-defend was intermitted murder of the accused who had ‘substantially’ begin it; while some reluctance was revealed by the courts in treating intervening checkup cure as breaching the associate and in R -v- Smith 1959 as greatly as by 75% lessening of it by that did not breach the associate, in R -v- Jordan 1956 obviously wicked checkup cure was the regulate and the regulate begin of murder, from R -v- Cheshire 1991 it is lucid that the associate can be damaged.
Menstrual is the defect-intensity of the accused in the act or mission; it is regularly included in the definition of somber crimes e.g., ‘with nastiness aforethought’; it is ‘the guilty brains’ by purpose, reckminusness, or foul-negligence.
objective, for most somber crimes, has to be reality ally revealed, by a subjective trial deemed by the jury to have been display, R -v- Maloney 1985: in the form of insight of, R -v- Hancock & Shank land 1986: the probable consequences, willfully and deliberately conceded out ~or in R -v- Natick 1988 with virtual certainty of the probable consequences -which may be purpose: Scale 1955.
Reckminusness in sis. 47, 20, 23 Offences Against the character Act 1861 (actual forcibly destroy, terrible forcibly destroy, rape) show main purpose; it can be subjective: leaking ripped off gas-gauge killed in R -v- Cunningham 1957; or objective: R -v- Caldwell 1981 (flammable by drunk) -s1 (2) Criminal spoil Act 1971: as to whether life would be endangered.
Negligence can be menstrual in non-precise-liability offences of e.g. Factories Act 1961 -but only as a last remedy; but foul negligence, regularly, is sufficient menstrual in murder situations: Atomic 1994
precise liability does not entail menstrual e.g. Food & Drugs Act 1995 -in Mea -v- Roberts 1977 of the unfitness of taste for soul consumption the accused was blameless yet still guilty ~but in Warner -v- Metropolitan regulate Commissioner 1969 (hazardous drugs situation) ‘one cannot be in possession the inside of a embalm when he/she does not know what it is’.
When we begin to bring this information together, it starts to form the main idea of what this subject is about.
Before purchasing any sites especially agriculture land for non agriculture purpose approval under relevant laws viz. Karnataka Land Reforms Act, 1961, the Karnataka Land Revenue Act, 1964 along rules and other provisions of law is must. And Bangalore Metropolitan Regional development Authority (BMRDA) is regulating authority to approve layouts on outskirts of Bangalore.
Clear title and documentation are hard to come by with agricultural land of Bangalore (Karnataka). The following is a useful checklist of documents for review by a Bangalore law firm / lawyer before purchasing Agricultural land:
Mother deed and sale deed: It is very important document to trace the ownership of agriculture land. And it is basic document that shows how the property at the commencement was acquired there after there will be series of transactions such as sale gift law in Bangalore etc.
Akarbandi: Land topography sketch issued by State Revenue Authority viz. survey department. It establishes the survey number and to whom the particular survey number was originally allotted and the land / property revenue assessment details.
Encumbrance Certificate: Certificate from State Revenue Authority stating that there is no lien on the land / property (Has to be obtained for the last 30 years)
Family Tree of the vendor: State Revenue Authority document required to ascertain whether other family members have a stake in the property
Saguvali Chit: It is also called Grant Certificate. This is issued on Form No..VII in case of grant of Govt. land to the eligible persons for cultivation. This establishes title of the persons in the Saguvali Chit to the land granted.
Conversion Order: Conversion certificate has to be obtained for non agriculture purpose & that has to be checked to determine whether it is DC converted or not.
Khata and up to date Tax-paid receipts: Khata in Form MAR 19 (issued prior to 19. 05.2003) along up to date Tax-paid receipts.
Land Acquisition Status: Endorsements from State Revenue Authority certifying the Govt. acquisition status for the property for instance Notification by B.D.A. or KIADB for acquisition.
Mutation Extracts: History of changes in ownership (for 30 years) as documented in the Khatha Certificates issued by the State Revenue Authority. This is an extract from the mutation register maintained by the village property accountant.
NIL Tenancy Certificate/Form No.7 Endorsement: State Revenue Authority certification stating whether the land has any tenants. This issued by the Tasildar. This endorsement certifies that there no tenancy cases pending in respect of property in question as per the KLR act 1961.
Podi Extracts: Property partition document among siblings if any.
Property Tax Paid Receipt: Latest tax receipt validating that the property tax status is current.
RTC (Record of Rights) / Phani: This is primary record issued by the villager Accountant. It contains details of Survey number, total extent of land property, names of the owner including details as to conversion of land from agriculture to non- agriculture property. (has to be obtained for the last 30 years as per Bangalore law)
Section 79A & B endorsement U/KLR Act, 1961: These are issued by Tahsildar. These endorsement certifies that there no cases pending against the person owning the agriculture land / property.
Village Survey Map: Land location sketch
Patta Book: This book contains information regarding the payment of land revenue and other Govt. dues & information of cultivation. And also contains a copy of the record of rights to the land / property situated in Bangalore.
Tippani: This issued by the Survey Dept. It shows a sketch of the land as the records of the survey Dept.
Comprehensive Development Plan (CDP), Zonal Regulation Map and Survey Map. Apart from the above property should not come within the Green Belt Area.
SOCIAL ENGINEERING BY ROSCOE POUND
ISSUES IN LEGAL AND POLITACAL PHILOSOPHY
Submitted By: SAI ABHIPSA GOCHHAYAT PG 21005 West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences, Kolkata
INTRODUCTION: Man is a social animal and needs a society for his leaving, working and enjoying life . A group of individual forms a society. Society has become an essential condition for human life to develop his or her personality. Therefore society and human life always go together . Every human being has also born with some desires and expectations which are inherent in nature. From childhood to till old age, every human being expects that his or her desire is to be fulfilled for which their arise conflict of desires or claims which comes under the term -interest’. It is impossible to fulfil all the desires of a human being. So to fulfil the desires of maximum human being for the welfare of society the concept of Social Engineering was emerged and which was coined by Roscoe Pound . The force which asks for the adoption of Social engineering is nothing but the conflict of interests of individuals. Interests more particularly the conflicting interest are the subject of Social Engineering. Social engineering is based on the notion that Laws are used as a means to shape society and regulate people’s behaviour. It is an attempt to control the human conduct through the help of Law . According to Pound, -Law is social engineering which means a balance between the competing interests in society’ , in which applied science are used for resolving individual and social problems. For this purpose this paper is going to discuss about the mechanism of Law in bringing Social Engineering. This paper is divided into three parts. Part II will discuss about the object of the paper. Part III will give suggestions and conclusion.
CHAPTER II ISSUES: Conflict of interest and the order of priority – To which interest importance will be given so that balancing of interest, can be achieved for the benefit of society by sacrificing other interest and how law helps in bringing social engineering. The object of the paper is to find out how Law helps in harmonizing conflict of interests. According to Pound, Law is Social Engineering . He says that -like an engineer’s formulae, laws represent experience, scientific formulations of experience and logical developments of the formulations, also inventive skill in conceiving new devices and formulating their requirements by means of a developed technique- . He called this theory as -Theory of Social Engineering’. Here Pound has used two words i.e. -Social’ means group of individual forming a society. The second word is -Engineering’ which means applied science carried out by engineers to produce finished products which are necessary for the society and which fulfil all their needs. By combining these two words he tries to say about engineers and what they do. They use the formula which is based on continuous experimentation and experience to get the finished product by means of an instrument or device. Therefore Pound represents -experience with law’, -instrument with organs of government, -engineers with judge and lawyer’ and -finished product with the wants of human beings’ and -society with a factory’. He says that like engineers, the lawyer should apply law in a court room so that the desires of the people are fulfilled. Therefore he calls law as Social Engineering and says that the aim of Social Engineering is to build as efficient a structure of society as possible which requires the satisfaction of wants with the minimum of friction and waste. It means Law should work for balancing of competing interest within the society for the greatest benefit. In a society everybody is motivated by their own interest and wants that preference be given to his or her interest over the other. Conflicts between interests arise because of the competition of the individuals with each other, with the public in order to satisfy human wants. Therefore it is needed to recognise the interest to which law should take account . For this purpose a legal system has to i.Recognize certain interest ii.Define the limits within which such interest are to be legally recognized and given effect to it. iii.And finally the above interest should be secured. Suppose I want to stand first in the exam. It is my desire. But this desire cannot be fulfilled because there is no legal recognition as there is no state’s interest in standing first position. Therefore law has to take into account the desires which need recognition. For the purpose of satisfying human interests, Pound defined interest as -claims or wants or desires which men assert de facto about which the law must do something if organised societies are to endure’ . Pound classified various interests which are to be protected by the law under three categorise which are the following : 1.INDIVIDUAL INTERESTS: These are claims or demands involved from the stand point of the individual life which consists of interest of personality, interest in domestic relations and interest of substance. 2.PUBLIC INTEREST: These are the claims or desires asserted by the individual from the stand point of political life which means every individual in a society has a responsibility towards each other and to make the use of things which are open to public use. 3.SOCIAL INTEREST: These are the claims or demands in terms of social life which means to fulfill all the needs of a society as a whole for the proper functioning and maintenance of it. It is found that there is overlapping of interest between Public and Social Interest because both are same. Pound is silent about the overlapping of interest and discussed the problem of interests in terms of balancing of Individual Interest and Social Interest . He has classified the interest into three categories but talks about the balancing of only Individual and Social Interest. It is also found that interests are the subjects on whom law has to apply social engineering. How to evaluate the conflicting interests in due order to priority? What are the guidelines on the basis of which social engineering should be carried out? Pound’s answer by saying that every society is based on basic assumptions which help in ordering of interest . One interest is of more value than that of other and the object of law should be to satisfy the interest which is in the benefit of the maximum people. Thus these assumptions are identified as jural postulates which are based on hypothesis . According to Pound, jural postulates are not the absolute one and they keep on changing as the needs of the situation, place and time demands. In 1919, Pound summarised the postulates which every individual in civilised society must be able to take it for granted that : i.Others will not commit any intentional aggressions upon him. E.g. Assault, battery, wrongful restraint etc. ii.Others will act with due care and will not cast upon him an unreasonable risk of injury. E.g. Negligence iii.He can appropriate what he has created by his own labour and what he has acquired under existing economic order for his own use. E.g. agricultural land and usufruct as property. iv.The people with whom he deals with in the general intercourse of society will act in good faith. E.g. Defamation v.He must keep the things within his boundary and should look after those things so that their escape should not harm others. E.g. Ryland vs. Fletcher case In 1942, Pound added three new postulates in the list which are i.A person will have security as a job holder. E.g. ruled by labour law, law of contract ii.Society will bear the burden of supporting him when he becomes aged. E.g. 1/3rd concession in railway ticket, ceiling of income tax range is more. iii.And the society as a whole will bear the risk of unforeseen misfortunes such as disablement. E.g. reservation quota for physically disabled person in education, travel etc. The jural postulates are to be applied both by the legislators and judiciary for evaluating and balancing the various interests and harmonizing them. Somehow Pound has told about the procedure of evaluating interests. But he has not said anything about the interest which will be given more priority over other. Whether balance between Individual and Social Interest can be achieved or not? According to Pound, balance of competing interest means satisfaction of maximum interests with less friction and waste. It means to reconcile and adjust the social and individual interest. But in practice two interests cannot be balanced. It is also found that Pound has not given much detailed attention to the way one conflicting interest is to be compared with another. Balance can only be done only when two things are able to be compared. Here, the -balancing’ metaphor is misleading . If two interests are to be balanced, that presupposes some scale or yardstick to measure and two things should be able for comparison . For balancing of anything, mathematical calculation or ratio is the outcome. For e.g. in case of ecological balance, the amount of CO2 in terms of % is to be balanced with O2 which means reduction of CO2 by aforestation or increasing the level of O2 by aforestation so that ecological balance can be attained. Therefore balance means to upgrade one thing at par with other so that neither of the two things loses anything. As per Pound’s theory, there is a clause relating to the protection of natural environment coming under social interest. There is no doubt that every society wants a healthy environment and the factory producing nuisances and pollution needs to be closed. It is in the interest of whole public for which factory is closed and the maximum satisfaction of people is achieved. But the owner of the factory having Individual Interest suffers a lot. In this circumstance, though maximum interest of the people is satisfied with least sacrifice of individual interest of the owner but balance between Individual and Social Interest has not been achieved because one has to suffer and other has to gain. When there is a matrimonial dispute between a husband and wife and wife gets a divorce decree against her husband, in this case interest of wife prevails over the husband and balance of two Individual Interests is not there because husband has to give maintenance to wife and children for which the husband suffers a lots. Exception is in case of Divorce by Mutual Consent in which both husband and wife are satisfied with divorce decree and their individual interests are fulfilled. By above discussion it is opined that conflicting interests can be satisfied by reconciliation and adjustment and the word balance is not the appropriate one for conflicting interest. How does the satisfaction of the maximum of wants with the minimum of friction and waste can be done? Pounds theory asks for the maximum gain with least friction and waste i.e. maximum satisfaction of human wants or expectations with least sacrifice. Here Pound wants to bring social control in the society. According to him social control means satisfaction of the maximum of wants of the human being in a society. Pound says that for social control, interest is the only thing which should be taken into account and Law is a means of social control. Thus law should work for balancing of interest within the society i.e. satisfying maximum interest with least waste. Somehow this theory gives prime importance to interest of public at large over individual interest and if interpreted strictly then they may result in eliminating individual interest. Here law is not supposed to deal with individual interest but bunch of interest. The tool is given in the hands of law to set them at their right position for the maximum outcome. It is true that law and order plays an important role in a society. Law and order are carried out by the Judiciary and they keep on harmonising the conflicting interests of the individual and the public through the process of social engineering. It has been witnessed through the action of Supreme Court in Vellore Citizen’s Welfare Forum Vs. The Union of India in which Kuldip Singh J. delivered the judgment that -even if the industries are of vital importance for the countries progress as they provides employment but having regard to the pollution caused by him, the principle of -sustainable development’ has to be adopted as a balancing concept between ecology and development- . In this case the two principles emerged i.e. -precautionary principle’ and the -Polluter Pays’ principle. In a land mark case of Union Carbide Corporation vs. Union of India , the Supreme Court laid down the rule of Absolute Liability in which it was held that -where an enterprise is engaged in a hazardous or inherently dangerous activity and harm results to anyone on account of an accident in the operation of such hazardous activity, then the enterprise involved is strictly and absolutely liable to compensate to all those who are affected by the accident- . In this case regarding the compensation the Court said that the measure of compensation must be correlated to the magnitude and capacity of the enterprise because such compensation has a deterrent effect for future accident.
After this case, Central government passed an Act known as -The Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster (Registration and Processing of Claims) Act, 1985′ in which sec.5 of this Act says about the categorization and registration of claims . The various claims of the each individual relating to their own body, property and the claims arising from damage to flora and fauna were registered. Under sec11 of this Act, the quantum of compensation payable to the claimants was decided.
From this judgment it can be said that law gives first priority to social interest over individual interest of substance i.e. in conserving natural resources and in the protection of natural environment which is required by the whole public against the private individual who is the owner of the enterprise. Finally the maximum claims of the people were satisfied with least sacrifice of individual interest. By this act it can be seen that how various claims were categorized and compensation were given, which ultimately says that law is an instrument of social change.
In Deepa vs. S.I of Police It was held that the interest of society should be given paramount consideration over the individual interest of those who are running the show for profit and who are also earning livelihood by performing the cabaret dance in a hotel . It was a situation where the whole public says that the dance was obscene in the eyes of onlookers, which is an offence u/s 294 of IPC 1860. Hence it is found that Social Interest prevails over the Individual Interest. But this is not true in many cases. Social Engineering deals with as many satisfactions of human wants which means law should play an important role in bringing social change by fulfilling the interest of the society as a whole. There are also instances where individual interest has priority over social interest. According to Sec122 of Evidence Act 1872, marital communication between husband and wife which is an individual interest in domestic relation are privileged . Then Social Interest can be fulfilled by securing privilege communication (matrimonial communication) in which individual interest in connection with domestic relation is first privileged and which in turn secure the social institution of marriages.
Law has given preference to the interest of backward classes through reservation in government jobs, educational institutions, which not only hampers the interest of eligible candidate but also it hampers the interest of the public at large. By this type of law general people cannot tell that this reservation policy which comes under constitutional law is a bad law for them. Sometimes bad law becomes good law. Here Law helps in social engineering by giving special protection to the minority class having individual interests over social interests so that there can be ultimate social progress by bringing the minority class equally to the standard of upper class.
CHAPTER III CONCLUSION: By analysing this paper it is concluded that, Law plays an important role in reconciling and adjusting conflict of interests. Both the Social Interest and Individual Interest prevail over each other. Priority is given to both the interests. Roscoe Pound has given the concept of Social Engineering for the American Society but this concept is followed by other countries in resolving disputes. India has also followed the same concept in establishing a welfare society. Both Judiciary and Legislators play an important role in enacting the statutes which fulfil the various desires of human being. In this techsavvy society desires of human being grows and to fulfil their desires new policies, strategy has been developed.
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